Back in November, we noticed something odd happening with large uploads to Amazon S3. Uploads would pause for 10 seconds at a time and then resume. It had us baffled. When we started to dig, what we found left us with more questions than answers about S3 and AWS networking.
We use Amazon S3 for file storage. Each Basecamp product stores files in a primary region, which is replicated to a secondary region. This ensures that if any AWS region becomes unavailable, we can switch to the other region, with little impact to users uploading and downloading files.
Back in November, we started to notice some really long latencies when uploading large files to S3 in us-west-2, Basecamp 2’s primary S3 region. When uploading files over 100MB, we use S3’s multipart API to upload the file in multiple 5MB segments. These uploads normally take a few seconds at most. But we saw segments take 40 to 60 seconds to upload. There were no retries logged, and eventually the file would be uploaded successfully.
[AWS S3 200 0.327131 0 retries]
[AWS S3 200 61.354978 0 retries]
[AWS S3 200 1.18382 0 retries]
[AWS S3 200 43.891385 0 retries]
For our applications that run on-premise in our Ashburn, VA datacenter, we push all S3 traffic over redundant 10GB Amazon Direct Connects. For our Chicago, IL datacenter, we push S3 over public internet. To our surprise, when testing uploads from our Chicago datacenter, we didn’t see any increased upload time. Since we only saw horrible upload times going to us-west-2, and not our secondary region in us-east-2, we made the decision to temporarily promote us-east-2 to our primary region.
Now that we were using S3 in us-east-2, our users were no longer feeling the pain of high upload time. But we still needed to get to the bottom of this, so we opened a support case.
Our initial indication was that our direct connections were causing slowness when pushing uploads to S3. However, after testing with mtr, we were able to rule out direct connect packet loss and latency as the culprit. As AWS escalated our case internally, we started to analyze the TCP exchanges while we upload files to S3.
The first thing we needed was a repeatable and easy way to upload files to S3. Taking the time to build and set up proper tooling when diagnosing an issue really pays off in the long run. In this case, we built a simple tool that uses the same Ruby libraries as our production applications. This ensured that our testing would be as close to production as possible. It also included support for multiple S3 regions and benchmarking for the actual uploads. Just as we expected, uploads to both us-west regions were slow.
irb(main):023:0> S3Monitor.benchmark_upload_all_regions_via_ruby(200000000) region user system total real us-east-1: 1.894525 0.232932 2.127457 ( 3.220910) us-east-2: 1.801710 0.271458 2.073168 ( 13.369083) us-west-1: 1.807547 0.270757 2.078304 ( 98.301068) us-west-2: 1.849375 0.258619 2.107994 (130.012703)
While we were running these upload tests, we used tcpdump to output the TCP traffic so we could read it with Wireshark and TShark.
$ tcpdump -i eth0 dst port 443 -s 65535 -w /tmp/S3_tcp_dump.log
When analyzing the tcpdump using Wireshark, we found something very interesting: TCP retransmissions. Now we were getting somewhere!
Analysis with TShark gave us the full story of why we were seeing so many retransmissions. During the transfer of 200MB to S3, we would see thousands of out-of-order packets, causing thousands of retransmissions. Even though we were seeing out-of-order packets to all US S3 regions, these retransmissions compounded with the increased round trip time to the us-west regions is why they were so much worse than the us-east regions.
# tshark -r S3_tcp_dump.log -q -z io,stat,1,"COUNT(tcp.analysis.retransmission) tcp.analysis.retransmission","COUNT(tcp.analysis.duplicate_ack)tcp.analysis.duplicate_ack","COUNT(tcp.analysis.lost_segment) tcp.analysis.lost_segment","COUNT(tcp.analysis.fast_retransmission) tcp.analysis.fast_retransmission","COUNT(tcp.analysis.out_of_order) tcp.analysis.out_of_order" Running as user "root" and group "root". This could be dangerous. =================================================================================== | IO Statistics | | | | Duration: 13.743352 secs | | Interval: 1 secs | | | | Col 1: COUNT(tcp.analysis.retransmission) tcp.analysis.retransmission | | 2: COUNT(tcp.analysis.duplicate_ack)tcp.analysis.duplicate_ack | | 3: COUNT(tcp.analysis.lost_segment) tcp.analysis.lost_segment | | 4: COUNT(tcp.analysis.fast_retransmission) tcp.analysis.fast_retransmission | | 5: COUNT(tcp.analysis.out_of_order) tcp.analysis.out_of_order | |---------------------------------------------------------------------------------| | |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | | | Interval | COUNT | COUNT | COUNT | COUNT | COUNT | | |--------------------------------------------------| | | 0 <> 1 | 28 | 11 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | 1 <> 2 | 3195 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 5206 | | | 2 <> 3 | 413 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1962 | ... | 13 <> Dur| 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | ===================================================================================
What’s interesting here is that we see thousands of our-of-order packets when transversing our direct connections. However, when going over the public internet, there are no retransmissions or out-of-order packets. When we brought these findings to AWS support, their internal teams reported back that “out-of-order packets are not a bug or some issue with AWS Networking. In general, the out-of-order packets are common in any network.” It was clear to us that out-of-order packets were something we’d have to deal with if we were going to continue to use S3 over our direct connections.
Thankfully, TCP has tools for better handling of dropped or out-of-order packets. Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) is a TCP feature that allows a receiver to acknowledge non-consecutive data. Then the sender can retransmit only missing packets, not the out-of-order packets. SACK is nothing new and is enabled on all modern operating systems. I didn’t have to look far until I found why SACK was disabled on all of our hosts. Back in June, the details of SACK Panic were released. It was a group of vulnerabilities that allowed for a remotely triggered denial-of-service or kernel panic to occur on Linux and FreeBSD systems.
In testing, the benefits of enabling SACK were immediately apparent. The out-of-order packets still exist, but they did not cause a cascade of retransmissions. Our upload time to us-west-2 was more than 22 times faster than with SACK disabled. This is exactly what we needed!
irb(main):023:0> S3Monitor.benchmark_upload_all_regions_via_ruby(200000000) region user system total real us-east-1: 1.837095 0.315635 2.152730 ( 2.734997) us-east-2: 1.800079 0.269220 2.069299 ( 3.834752) us-west-1: 1.812679 0.274270 2.086949 ( 5.612054) us-west-2: 1.862457 0.186364 2.048821 ( 5.679409)
The solution would not just be as simple as just re-enabling SACK. The majority of our hosts were on new-enough kernels that had the SACK Panic patch in place. But we had a few hosts that could not upgrade and were running vulnerable kernel versions. Our solution was to use iptables to block connections with a low MSS value. This block allowed for SACK to be enabled while still blocking the attack.
$ iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcpmss --mss 1:500 -j DROP
After almost a month of back-and-forth with AWS support, we did not get any indication why packets from S3 are horribly out of order. But thanks to our own detective work, some helpful tools, and SACK, we were able to address the problem ourselves.